The aim of so it tasks are to examine the end result out of reproduce and you can ages on eggs creation therefore the eggs external and you can internal high quality inside the four Italian twin-mission types , in the beginning and many weeks later on than just earliest days putting pastime one taken place, respectively, at the conclusion of summer/start of autumn along with cold weather, not as much as varying environment requirements.
2.step one. Pet and you may Rearing Conditions
Five Italian poultry breeds, Pepoi (PP), Ermellinata di Rovigo (ER), Robusta Maculata (RM) and Robusta Lionata (RL), had been experienced towards research. The body pounds off adult females is 1.twenty five kilogram into the PP, dos.30 kilogram from inside the Er and step 3.05 kilogram in RM and you will RL. The origin is the Veneto part (Italy): PP are a vintage regional breed; its provider was dated to new XIX century, however, no right research for the their hereditary supply are present. Additional types are built in Veneto inside 1950s: the new Emergency room reproduce arises from Sussex (shaded eggshell breed) and you will Rhode Isle (brown eggshell breed) types, while with the RM and RL types, Brownish Orpington and White America, a few brown eggshell breeds were utilized . As well as the mature weight, these types of breeds disagree in their plumage along with: it’s golden within the PP, Er reveals erminate plumage, RM plumage is predominantly white which have black extremities in lot of places of your own system, black feathers out-of primaries and tail and you can RL reveals good tawny plumage with black feathers off primaries and you may tail. All breeds (Profile S1) let you know single comb and you may put shaded eggshell eggs (Profile S2).
2. Content and techniques
Wild birds off per breed hatched meanwhile (last half from age farm of one’s Hub to have Chicken Biodiversity Preservation on the Veneto area (it regularly offers the latest rearing ones types too are you aware that eggs design getting incubation and you will brooding), in Northern Italy (45°02?53? N), away from hatching towards the pubertal decades and you may about putting period, hence become on end regarding june for the start of trip (Profile step one), with respect to the reproduce. Eating, rearing conditions (photoperiod, temperature) and you may prophylaxis procedures was in fact an equivalent with the four breeds, since that time out-of hatching on stop of your own learnt period, that has been inside , from the 53 weeks old. The brand new freshly hatched chicks was basically leftover inside during the basic cuatro weeks out-of existence, at the a green heat coming down of thirty two so you’re able to 24 °C, lower than infra-reddish rays lamps, toward litter. Within step one.5 months old, the newest wild birds received free access to outdoor places, out of spring so you’re able to fall and winter months. For every single breed (sixty hens) got totally free the means to access outdoor (5 yards dos /bird) area (armed with linear drinkers), where hens lived from day to night, also to indoor (cuatro hens/yards 2 ) room (wood shavings and you may straw litter, having perches and game feeders), mainly utilized getting putting egg (cumulative nests) and also at night; the room (interior and you may outdoor) accessible to each breed are divided by netting.
At the start of laying (around 22 days of age to your reproduce having prior to onset of putting), in September–October, depending on the reproduce, the photoperiod was natural and you will coming down, according to 12 months plus the geographic status of the demonstration channel for the Northern Italy (an average of, 12L:12D), and also for the next period (out-of 38 weeks old, of December to help you 53 days old), phony light is actually slowly increased (from inside the interior room, filament-based light bulb, about 60 lux) locate a great photoperiod of 14L:10D. The fresh photoperiod try regulated of the a timer, and it also is actually attained by switching on new white an hour or so prior to dawn and you can turning off they an hour or so once sunset. The fresh new external environmental temperatures are ten ± step 3.cuatro °C and you may eleven ± step three.0 °C, correspondingly, towards very first (right away out of October into end out-of November) as well as the second (right from the start away from January for the end regarding March) laying episodes, if the data on the yield performance and you will eggs top quality were built-up. This new dogs were given advertising libitum commercial feeds predicated on the emotional phase (about three diversified commercial nourishes when you look at the increasing several months). Toward very first laying stage (26–33 months old, below coming down absolute photoperiod), in the event that types become installing, new birds received a commercial pelleted provide (PG = 16%, Myself = 11.8 MJ/kg, California = 1.1%, P = 0.6%) and you will maize (PG = 9.1% Indien kvinnor till salu, Me = 13.eight MJ/kg), on a proportion of 1:step 1. It is worthy of recalling you to definitely, at this many years, only the dual-goal and you may shaded eggshell types exhibited a changeable start of installing and egg development rates, while the fresh hens of the other varieties of brand new Maintenance Center to own Biodiversity and you may hatched meanwhile of your own read breeds, including the light eggshell breeds, didn’t start laying (Padovana breed) or it shown an extremely scant putting passion (Polverara breed), never ever reaching the tolerance out of ten% hen–date eggs design. The reason behind the option of the new Conservation Heart, to not ever play with a rss getting laying hens during the this era, is on account of maybe not pushing this new pullets to egg creation through the a month with decreasing heat and you will photoperiod. The wild birds expanded external, under favourable requirements to own skeletal health, travelling crushed and you may under solar rays. On back yard each reproduce, the presence of yard offered to the newest wild birds try large through the the newest broadening months than just at the start of installing, and that took place following summer season, in the event that rain is actually scarce and you may didn’t accommodate a good grass regrowth. Out of 38 to 53 weeks old, and you will not as much as expanding photoperiod, the hens was given a commercial pelleted supply to have installing (PG = 16%, Myself = eleven.5 MJ/kg, California = cuatro.2%, P = 0.6%). All of the nourishes comprised primarily away from maize and you can soybean.